Modern Rodding Tech
a large, effective fan displayed on a car in a garage
1. OK, it’s ridiculous; the extension cord limits how far we can travel. The point remains, a large, effective fan can prevent your hot rod from overheating.
Blowin’ in the Wind
How to Pick the Engine Cooling Fan That’s Right for Your Hot Rod
By Ron Ceridono

ne of the common problems with hot rods is that they are often just that, hot—and not in a good way. Occasionally your hot rod’s cooling system may burp out a little coolant after the engine is shut down and the reason is simple enough. Although coolant is no longer circulating, it will continue to absorb heat and in some cases that will cause enough pressure to build in the system to exceed the pressure rating of the radiator cap. The result is some coolant will be released and there will be a puddle on the ground. The biggest problem with this situation is that if it happens repeatedly the coolant level may drop to a dangerously low level and that will result in a serious overheating problem. A couple of simple cures for this condition are a coolant recovery tank and/or allowing an electric engine cooling fan to run for a short period after the engine is shut off.

While losing a little coolant on a hot day is annoying, severe overheating is a far more serious problem. It can lead to catastrophic engine failure—piston rings may be stuck to the cylinder walls, pistons may seize, exhaust valves can stick in their guides, heads and block often crack. In other words, a good engine can be reduced to junk in short order by overheating. So, what is the ideal engine operating temperature? With today’s fuels, 180 degrees is considered the minimum operating temperature for efficient combustion and is ideal for vintage engines on the street. It’s generally agreed that 190 degrees is a safe operating temperature for modern carbureted engines and contemporary computer-controlled, fuel-injected crate engines 195-220 degrees is considered the norm. The trick is to achieve the proper temperature without exceeding it.

A vital component of the cooling system for maintaining the proper engine temperature is the fan. Granted, once a car is moving at a speed sufficient to provide ram airflow through the radiator a fan isn’t really necessary in most circumstances. While it depends on the design of the car, 30 mph is usually fast enough to provide the necessary airflow, but reality dictates we often move slower, or not at all, which is where a fan comes into play. Ironically, as important as fans are, the space required for one isn’t always taken into consideration. Many a hot rodder has performed an engine swap only to find there was no room for a fan and then went on a frantic search for one that would fit—the results are seldom satisfactory. The secret is to plan ahead by positioning the radiator and leaving plenty of room for a fan before the engine location is finalized.

When it comes to selecting a fan there are a variety to choose from
Mechanical Fans
Rigid fans are the most basic of the mechanical fans. They’re simple and effective and may have two to six blades. The common objection to engine-driven fans is the amount of horsepower they consume. As you might guess, the more blades and the greater their pitch the more power it takes to spin them, with the worst offenders soaking up to 30 hp or more. On the other hand, when it comes to moving lots of air, an engine-driven fan is hard to beat.

Flex fans are a sophisticated version of a rigid fan. The pitch of the blades on a flex fan will pull lots of air at low speeds, then flatten out at higher speeds for less drag. Of course, not all flex fans are created equal. Some made-of-plastic fans flex very little, while the aluminum and stainless variety seem to be more effective.

Clutch fans are found on many OEM applications. They use a rigid fan attached to a clutch that will disengage either based on temperature or engine rpm. While clutch fans have obvious advantages, their big drawback is the space they require forward of the water pump.

Clutch fans fall into three categories. The viscous/torque type have some slip all the time that limits their speed to a percentage of the water pump speed. Another style is the viscous/temperature-controlled type, these slip less as temperature raises, increasing fan speed. Lastly there is the viscous thermostatic type that turns on and off at a predetermined temperature. With this style of clutch the fan “idles” and doesn’t run at engine speed until needed. The complication is these are calibrated to specific cars or trucks, so successfully adapting one would be a guessing game. Too low a cut-in it would run all the time, too high and it will never turn on.

To properly locate a mechanical fan in relationship to a radiator or shroud it’s often necessary to use a fan spacer. Realize not all spacers are created equal. Some cheap spacers are not particularly accurate and may cause the fan to have a certain amount of runout, not something you want with the fan hanging off the end of the water pump. The best choice is to spend a few extra bucks for a quality, machined aluminum spacer and limit spacer length to 3 inches max.
Electric Fans
These offer a number of advantages. Obviously they eliminate the horsepower loss of a mechanical fan, which may also improve gas mileage. Electric fans will often provide cooler A/C output at idle and pull air more effectively through radiators with an A/C condenser or transmission cooler in front of them.

When choosing an electric fan there are a number of considerations; one of the most difficult to decipher can be their cfm (cubic feet per minute) rating. Electric fans are normally rated at 0-inch static pressure, which means there is nothing restricting airflow. Put a radiator in front of them and other impediments to airflow like an A/C condenser and an auxiliary cooler of some sort and the static pressure, or the resistance to airflow, increases. That’s when the motor becomes a factor; given equal cfm ratings a fan with a more powerful motor will be more effective as static pressure increases.

An important factor when selecting an electric fan is its diameter—this is an example of where size really does matter. As much of the radiator core as possible should be covered; in some cases that may require dual fans. Another consideration is the type of fan blades; they may be straight or curved. In operation S-blade fans are quieter whereas straight blade fans generally move a little more air. For a normal street rod, SPAL suggests using a curved blade fan; for more high-performance applications a straight blade fan is recommended.

Electrical Considerations
Electric fans can consume anywhere from 4 to 36 amps or more depending on the size of the fan and the efficiency of the motor. Keep in mind when an electric fan starts the current draw will spike and be considerably higher for an instant. As a result of the electrical demands from an electric fan(s) it’s important that an adequate alternator is part of the charging system; typically fan suppliers recommend at least a 100-amp alternator.

Along with an appropriate charging system, a relay kit should always be part of an electrical fan’s wiring. Although it may be tempting to use a simple toggle switch to activate the fan, there are two issues with this. First the fan’s amperage draw will fry most toggle switches. The other problem is back-feeding through the system. When the ignition is shut off the fan will continue to coast down to a stop. During the brief period an induction motor may act like a generator and back feed through the system and keep the engine running until the fan comes to a stop. A relay will cure both problems.

Brushless Fans
The latest and greatest variation of electric fans are the brushless designs found on many modern cars. Brushless fans are capable of moving more air than conventional fans while consuming less energy, last longer, and are extremely compact. A big plus is their speed varies based on demand.

As Rick Love of Vintage Air explains them, the brushless system contains no control relays. Instead, the battery powers the motor assembly at all times and an electronic controller within the motor housing determines when and how to operate the motor based on a signal that comes from the sender that senses the temperature of coolant leaving the engine.

When a brushless fan engages it begins with a “soft-start” at approximately 30 percent power when the engine is approximately at its coolant thermostat opening temperature, then the fan’s speed gradually ramps up as engine temperature increases. Since these fans are very powerful, they rarely, if ever, reach maximum speed.

Electric Fan Controls
These range from simple to complex. Basic controls are a thermal switch with set points that turn a relay on and off to control the fan. This style switch should turn the fan on approximately 15-20 degrees higher than the thermostat’s opening temperature and off around the thermostat’s opening temperature. More complicated controllers have adjustable on and off set points, are capable of controlling variable speed or dual fans, and will activate the fan(s) when the A/C is turned on.
Keep Your Cool
There are many viable options when selecting a fan for your hot rod and it’s important to plan ahead and leave enough room for whatever type you choose. When using a mechanical fan there should be at least 1 inch from the blades to the core and the same from the tip of the blades to the shroud to accommodate for engine and radiator movement. When mounting electric fans, avoid the plastic mounts that go through the core; mounting the fan to the radiator side straps is a better choice. With either type of fan incorporate a shroud for maximum efficiency.
black shiny four-blade mechanical fan
2. For decades four-blade mechanical fans were found on production vehicles and many early hot rods. They were a reasonable compromise between cooling and power loss.
a fan with more blades that is capable of moving a lot of air
3. As cooling demands increased OEMs went to fans with more blades and a greater angle of attack that were capable of moving a lot of air, particularly through thick radiator cores and A/C condensers.
Fan clutches with hardware displayed next to it
4. Fan clutches are often used with rigid fans to reduce parasitic loss by “slipping” at low engine temperatures or high engine speeds. Note the large center register hole typical of a fan used with a clutch.
flex fan that reduces engine drag
5. In an effort to reduce engine drag, flex fans were introduced. At low speeds the curved blades move lots of air, as engine speed increases the blades flattened reducing drag. This example is from Vintage Air.
a spacer that helps properly locate a mechanical fan
6. To properly locate a mechanical fan a spacer is often required. AFCO’s billet aluminum spacers from Speedway Motors are available in 1-, 1-1/2-, 2-, 2-1/2-, and 3-inch lengths.
Flex fans made from a variety of materials including aluminum and stainless steel
7. Flex fans are made from a variety of materials, including aluminum and stainless steel. Some of the first were made from fiberglass. Anyone remember those with the green fan blades?
serpentine drive system that uses a reverse rotation water pump
8. Most serpentine drive systems use a reverse rotation water pump, which in turn requires a reverse rotation fan. Note the angle of the blades on this reverse rotation fan compared to those in the previous photo.
fan blades not extending past the core to prevent disaster
9. To prevent disaster, fan blades should never extend past the core. Due to the change in static pressure, the fan blades will try to flex forward. In some cases, it will cause a weird pulsating sound as engine speed increases.
worst-case scenario of the blades of the fan flexed forward
10. Here’s the worst-case scenario. When the blades of this fan flexed forward two of them caught the lip on the lower radiator tank, which caused the tips to fold over on the ends.
closeup of a destroyed radiator core
11. The end result of the bent blades was a destroyed radiator core.
curved blade electric fans available from Vintage Air
12. Available from Vintage Air are curved blade electric fans. They have become popular thanks to their lower noise level.
electric fan from Vintage Air with blades that are straight
13. Electric fans are a great option for many cars and may be mounted in front of the radiator as a pusher or behind as a puller (pulling is preferred as pusher fans will impede ram air at highway speeds). Note the blades on this example from Vintage Air are straight.
shroud that helps make any fan more effective
14. Shrouds are a great addition to make any fan more effective. Many electric fans are offered with integral shrouds and mounting brackets. This example has louvers to “bleed off” pressure that can build up inside the shroud at highway speeds.
build-it-yourself kit offered by Speedway Motors
15. Shrouds are a great addition to make any fan more effective. This build-it-yourself kit is offered by Speedway Motors. For the most efficient operation the fan blades should be approximately 50 percent inside the shroud.
dual fan and shroud combo available from Vintage Air
16. This dual fan and shroud combo is available from Vintage Air. Notice the rectangular rubber flaps that blow open with the ram air effect at highway speeds with the fans off and closed when the fans are pulling air through the radiator.
brushless motor that includes a shroud and sturdy mounting brackets
17. One of the latest developments in aftermarket fans are brushless motors. They feature a “soft start;” and fan speed varies based on engine temperature. This example from Vintage Air includes a shroud and sturdy mounting brackets.
thermal switch that turns the fans on and off and presets temperature
18. Triggering electric fans can be done with a simple thermal switch that turns the fans on and off and presets temperature. This example is an AFCO temperature switch available from Speedway Motors; it has preset on and off points.
fully programable electric fan controller by Dakota Digital
19. Dakota Digital offers a variety of fully programable electric fan controllers. On and off set points are adjustable as is key off run time after shutdown (0 to 5 minutes). They will work with many existing temperature gauges (or with dedicated sender) and are capable of operation dual fans. The PAC-2800BT can be programmed via a Bluetooth connection.
Speedway Motors’ electric fan relay wiring kit with a 40-amp relay
20. Speedway Motors’ electric fan relay wiring kit comes with a 40-amp relay, wires, fuses, and 3/8-inch NPT brass thermostat. The non-adjustable thermal switch turns the fan on at 185 degrees and off at 165 degrees.
Vintage Air diagram  for typical electric fan relay wiring with trinary switch
21. Vintage Air offers a variety of electric fans and controllers. For the best A/C efficiency they recommend the use of a trinary switch to activate the cooling fan when the compressor clutch is engaged.
American Autowire dual electric fan activation system that allows the fans to be run separately, together, or with the second fan
22. The American Autowire dual electric fan activation system allows the fans to be run separately, together, or with the second fan activated by a manual switch or an A/C trinary switch.
Vintage Air chart that compares control kits for brushless fans
23. Vintage Air offers a range of brushless fan control kits. Note the operating range of the temperature senders are matched to the opening temperature of the engine’s thermostat.
Dakota Digital
(800) 852-3228
Speedway Motors
(800) 979-0122

Vintage Air
(800) 862-6658

Modern Rodding
VOLUME 2 • ISSUE 2 • 2021